Medieval Welsh linguistics

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Medieval Welsh linguistics

Post by Megli » 20 Oct 2006, 13:11

Hi All
I'm currently teaching a series of classes called Introducing Middle Welsh.
For these, I've produced weekly handouts, each on a separate grammatical topic: pronunciation and orthography, the noun system, the pronouns, the verbal system (two parts) etc etc.

I though I might post them here, in case anyone is trying to learn middle welsh, or in case anyone who knows the modern language or another celtic tongue might be interested to have a look at the medieval language.

So holler if you want more, and if not, no worries! Also it's a bit 'slim' as it's a handout, designed for me to be able to go through it expanding on it in class. Some of the first one is pinched from Gareth Morgan's Middle Welsh course, supplemented by further examples and clarrifications.

all best wishes
M /|\

Mark Williams               

An Introduction to Middle Welsh: 1

The Place of Welsh
[sorry, it's buggered up my lovely tree here...I hope it's clear]

                    |                             |
           Insular Celtic                     Continental Celtic
       _______|________                  _________|________________
      |                       |                    |           |              |              |
   Goidelic               Brittonic       Celtiberian  Gaulish  Lepontic      Galatian
 _____|____        ____|_____  _________  ____
 |            |      |                 |                 |         |
Irish    NE Gaelic Welsh  SW British       Cumbric   Pictish [perhaps]
      _____|_____       _____|_____
     |                   |     |                   |
Scots Gaelic   Manx  Breton     Cornish
                                            Revived Cornish [at least three forms]

British – till approximately AD450 then ‘neo-Brittonic’ until the late 500’s.
Old Welsh – AD 650? – AD 1100
Early Middle Welsh – AD 1100 – 1250
Late Middle Welsh – AD 1250 - 1400
Early Modern Welsh AD 1400 - 1600
Modern Welsh AD 1600 – present

Middle Welsh Orthography [sorry this should have come out as a table. The first consonant is the Middle WEelsh one, the second the ModW one.]
Consonants: (only possible deviations from ModW are noted)

MW ModW Examples
K C keffy, kynt
final C G marchawc, noc, darparedic
final P B hep, pawp, nep
final T D cochet, ryt, oet 'date'
DD trydyt, oet 'was'
D DD gorwed, gilyd, medwl
F FF /PH ford, furf , y fen for ei phen
R RH ryt, rac
MW ModW Examples
U W guelet, guerth, haut, paup, enu
F perued, uy, teruynedic, ulwyddyn
Y I medyant, ny
ei y (possessive)

Writing out of svarabakhtic vowel: colofyn, ffuryf, parabyl, Annwfyn

And e for y in e hun, e ymdeith, ken- for kyn-.

Sound changes: Vowel Affection and Consonant Mutation

An understanding of the possible changes of vowels and consonants under various phonological and grammatical circumstances is essential to learning to read MW.

Vowel Affection

There are two important ways that vowels in words can change, termed ‘y/ei-affection’ and ‘i-affection’. Affection is the technical term for the phenomenon in which a vowel is drawn part of the way towards a vowel in a following syllable.
The y/ei-affection has a limited scope. The most obvious use is in the second person singular of verbs whose base contains the sound a, like canaf (I sing), or caraf (I love). Under the influence of the -y in the ending, the a becomes e. The same change occurs in the second person plural, because the suffix was originally not -wch, but -ych. So the present tense of caraf (the model verb given at GMW pp. 114ff) will be:

caraf carwn
kery kerwch
car carant

The i-affection in verbs produces these changes:

a becomes ei
e becomes ei
aw becomes eu
o becomes y

One of the British third person singular endings was -it. After the general loss of final syllables, known as ‘apocope’, many verbs which had this ending now show only the affection that was produced by it. So, *arkit has become eirch. The present tense of archaf starts:

archaf 'I ask'
erchy 'you ask'
eirch 'he/she asks'

There you can see the root-vowel, y/ei-affection in the 2nd sg, and i-affection in the 3rd sg. I-affection is extremely important for the formation of plural nouns in Welsh, as the nominative plural of British –o- stem nouns was in –ī (from earlier –oi):

British: one bardos, ‘poet’ --> two bardī
MW: one bard --> two beird

[ModW orthography: bardd --> beirdd]

We will cover this in greater detail next week.

Consonant Changes: Lenition, Spirantisation, Nasalisation

The consonant changes known as ‘mutations’ are among the most distinctive features of the insular Celtic languages. The Brittonic languages to a great extent share the same system of mutations, but with a few interesting differences between them. The Goidelic languages have a different but parallel system. The system of mutations was in place before the MW period, and derives from sound-changes taking place in British. Mutation comes in three types, ‘Lenition’ [often called ‘soft mutation’ outside formal linguistics, ‘Spirantisation’ (‘aspirate mutation’) and ‘nasalisation’ (‘nasal mutation’.)] The advantage of the technical terms, incidentally, is that they facilitate comparison with the mutation system of Goidelic.


Lenition is in essence the softening in pronunciation of certain consonants between vowels (and in W between a vowel and a sonant) and was a widespread phenomenon in the development of the western European languages. The changes are as follows:

C/K [k] --> G
P --> B
G--> [zero] (Originally G--> the ‘back spirant’ GH [γ], but this was unstable in W and disappeared early leaving little trace.)
B-->F [v]
D --> [ð] (the ‘th’ at the beginning of ‘there’.) This is usually unmarked in Middle Welsh orthography, but is written dd in the modern language.
M-->F [v] (originally a more ‘nasal’ version of [v])

For example Latin vita ‘life’ --> Spanish vida.
Latin caput ‘head’ --> Spanish cabo
Late Latin aboculis ‘lacking eyes’ --> French aveugle, ‘blind’
Greek hepta ‘seven’ --> French hebdomadaire ‘weekly magazine’
Classical Greek biblios ‘book’ --> Mod. Greek pronunciation vivlios ‘book’.

So these kinds of changes are not unusual. They were applied very consistently to intervocalic consonants in British, and an easy way of illustrating this is to look at words borrowed from Latin into British, which underwent exactly the same changes as native words. (There is a full study of such borrowings in Harald Haarmann, Der Lateinische Lehnwortschatz im Kymrischen (Bonn, 1970).

P > B syberw proud L superbus
dyblyg fold L duplic- 'doubled'
B > F [v] afwyn rein L habena
ufydd humble L oboedi- 'obedient'
T > D penyd penance L paenit- 'penitent'
D > DD [ð] ufydd humble L oboedi- 'obedient'
perfedd middle/guts L permedi-
swydd office L sedes 'seat'
C [k] > G segur idle L securus
G > zero carrai lace L corrigia
eisieu need L exiguus 'scanty'
M > F [v] nifer host, retinue L numerus 'number'
prif chief L primus 'first'
perfedd middle/guts L permedi-
terfyn end L terminus
ffurf form, shape L forma

There are two other changes which are usually classed with these as lenitions, though they have a different rationale: LL --> L, and RH --> R. [See K. Jackson, Language and History in Eearly Britain, pp. 473-80]

From lenition to ‘soft mutation’:

The Insular Celtic tongues were more radical in that they came to apply these changes across word-boundaries in closely-connected phrases, such as article+noun, noun+adjective. So if the first word in a closely-connected phrase ended in a vowel, then lenition of the initial consonant of the following word would take place. This process thus took place before ‘apocope’, i.e the loss of final syllables. Compare:

oinā brigantinissā --> un frenhines ‘one queen’
oinos brigantinos --> un brenhin ‘one king’

and look at:

sindā mammā dagā --> y fam dda ‘the good mother’

So the effects persist even after apocope, and continue to be productive. Gradually, this effect spread by analogy; e.g. not all British feminine nouns ended in –ā, but all feminine nouns in Welsh cause lenition of a following adjective. Eventually, these changes become grammatical markers, a role quite removed from their historical origin.

Spirantisation /The ‘Aspirate Mutation’:

This mutation works as follows in MW, affecting only three consonants (voiceless stops go to voiceless fricatives)

P-->PH [very often spelled ff- or confusingly even f- in MW orthography]

Spirantisation/aspirate mutation occurs after certain common words in Welsh, including the conjunction and preposition a ‘and, with’; the fem. 3s possessive pronoun, both prefixed as y and infixed as w, ‘her’; the numerals tri, ‘three’, and chwech, ‘six’; the negative particles ny, na ‘not’; the conjunction no[c], ‘than’; and a few others.

Again this mutation is explicable on various historical grounds. You see equivalent changes within British words or Latin loanwords where K/C, P, or T were originally double:

kattos -->cath ‘cat’
Lat. occasio --> achaws ‘cause’
Lat. siccus --> sych ‘dry’

Also the same changes occur when c or p follow l or r, or when t follows r, so Latin corpus --> W. corff, not **corb. The spirantisation after a ‘and, with’ may have occurred because original a(g) assimilated to a following initial, creating a doubled consonant:

ag kattos --> ak kattos --> a chath ‘with a cat/and a cat’

The same with the negative ny:

nī-t kanam --> ni kkanam --> ny chanaf  ‘I do not sing’

Further, across word boundaries, spirantisation may be the effect of a lost final –s, which would have gone to –h. Compare:

*esjās kattos ‘her cat’ --> ei chath
*esjo kattos ‘his cat’ --> ei gath
*trīs kattoi ‘three cats’ --> tri chath

Nasalisation/ ‘The Nasal Mutation’:

This mutation is the most sketchily represented in MW orthography. It derives from sets of closely-connected words, as with lenition; here, the changes are caused by nasals at the end of post-apocope monosyllables:

*men' tat[os] --> fy nhad [ModW orthography]

There is an exception: certain combinations of numeral + set words which behave as though they were true primitive compounds.

E.g., Latin septem ‘seven’ tells us that this numeral once ended in an nasal sound, so it should be no surprise to find its W relative, saith, causing nasal mutation in combination with certain stereotyped oft-counted words, such as buwch, ‘cow’, blynedd, ‘year’, dynion, ‘men’ etc. saith + blyned --> saith mlyned, ‘seven years’.

Saith + broder--> saith mroder, as though it had come from *sextan-brāteron. Cf. OIr nonbor [nonvor] from *nawan-wirion.  This phenomenon then spread to other numerals that had not originally ended in a nasal.

The changes are:

B --> M
C --> Ngh
D --> N
G --> Ng
P --> Mh
T --> Nh

Nasal Mutation occurs after uy(n), yn, ‘my’ [cf. English ‘mine’], the preposition yn ‘in’, and after various numerals with certain commonly-counted words, like ‘year’, ‘day’, ‘cow’ and ‘man’. (See GMW p.22.) Note yn ‘in’ assimilates with the following consonant: ym Mochtref, ‘in Mochtref’, and yg gy(n)gor ‘in council’ (ModW yng nghyngor < cynghor)

Sandhi h

Under certain circumstances, some words prefix an h- to following words with an initial vowel. Most commonly:
After y the 3rd sg. fem possessive pronoun: yn y hoes, ‘in her age [oes]’
After the 1st sg infixed possessive pronoun: o’m hanuod, ‘against my will’
See GMW p. 23 for others.

Triggers of Soft Mutation in Middle Welsh: Useful List 1

A full list can be found at GMW pp.14-21, so what I give here is just an introduction and may be helpful as an aide-memoire.

1 after a as preverbal, interrogative or relative particle
2 after y 'his' or its infixed forms, e, y
3 after the prepositions am, ar, o, trwy, tros, i, hyd  
4 feminine nouns after article; un ‘one’ before a fem. noun  
5 ny[t], na[t], the negatives  
6 subject or object after verb  
7 subject or predicate after bod, 'to be'    
8 noun after positive adjective  
9 after the conjunctions pann, tra, yny  
10 after yn turning an adjective  an adverb and as a predicative particle  
11 after some numbers (especially dau/dwy, ‘two’)  
12 dy ‘your’ (2nd s.) and its infixed form ’th  
13 after mor ‘as’ ry ‘too’ and kyn ‘as’    
14 after pa, py, the interrogative pronoun    
15 An adjective after feminine singular  
16 Often of an adjective after a personal name, e.g. Hwyel Uychan
17 After the uncommon preverbal particle yt [do not confuse with y[d] which does not cause lenition]
18 After the perfective preverbal particle ry
19 A proper noun depending on a dual: deu uab Uedraut, ‘Medrawd’s two sons’
20 After the prefixes di-, dy- and go-
21 Very commonly of the second element of any compound: melyngoch ‘yellow-red’ [coch, ‘red’], henwr ‘old man’ [gwr, ‘man’] etc
22 A noun used in the vocative: uorwynnyon ‘O maidens!’ [<morwynnyon]
23 Destination of a verb of motion with no preposition: Gwyr a aeth Gatraeth, ‘men went to Catraeth’

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Post by Kernos » 20 Oct 2006, 16:03

Yes do continue!. The tree works, though I would have added (reconstructed Gaulish) just to add some controversy :D

You could also link to a PDF or DOC if you have web space or send them to me and I can upload them for you.

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Time is the Fire in which we burn.

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Post by Megli » 23 Oct 2006, 10:25

Mark Williams       

An Introduction to Middle Welsh 2

The Nominal System: the Article, Nouns and Adjectives

The Definite Article

The is no proper indefinite article in any Celtic language except Breton, which has a formation based on the numeral un ‘one’. (Co. has a halfway house use of the numeral unn to mean ‘a certain’…)So MW. brenhin is both ‘king’ and ‘a king’.

The Celtic definite article was *sind-os/-ā (masculine and feminine forms; the neuter is less clear; OIr suggests it may have been a reduced form, something like *san.)

The s- disappeared from all the surviving Celtic articles, leaving forms like OIr ind, Co. an, Br. an (and with assimilation to a following initial liquid, al and ar.) W. alone seems to have changed the –n- to an –r- for reasons which are not apparent; this was true even in OW, in which ir lau, ‘the hand’ is attested. The form of the definite article before a consonant in MW is y, with yr, ’r being used before a vowel or after the prepositions y, ‘to’, and o ‘from’, and the conjunctions a ‘and, with’, no ‘than’, and na ‘nor’. ir lau suggests that this was not originally the case, and that in OW the –r form was used even before a following consonant.

So compare ModW. tŷ y môr, Co. chy an mor, ‘house of the sea’

The definite article can be added to an adjective to give it the force of a noun: yr uchaf ‘the Highest’

Nouns: Gender, Case and Number


MW words are generally either masculine or feminine. A small number of nouns can be masculine or feminine depending on whether they are referring to a male or female being: e.g. dyn in MW can mean ‘man’ when masc. and ‘woman, girl’ when fem., the latter usage having dropped out in ModW. Others are llatai ‘love-messenger’, wyr ‘grandchild’, tyst ‘witness’. (See John Morris Jones, A Welsh Grammar: Phonology and Accidence, pp. 222-4)

For reasons which we covered last week, the article before a fem. noun causes lenition, and a fem. noun causes lenition of a following adjective.

The British neuter gender was lost well before the MW period, and neuter words were reassigned to masc. or fem. genders. Traces of the neuter may remain in words for objects which fluctuate in gender in MW, such as ty, ‘house’ (ModW masc. tŷ gwyn, ‘white house’, MW fem. ty…[bur]wen ‘[pure] white(hot) house’)

Note the very common ending –es for rendering a word feminine: marchawc ‘a knight’, marchoges ‘a horsewoman’. Cf. English ‘shepherd, shepherdess’ etc.


British had a well developed case system, not dissimilar to Latin. As British turned into the Brittonic languages, the case system was lost very early, as a result of apocope, i.e. the lost of final syllables (early to mid 6th century.) It has also been suggested that the case system was breaking down even before apocope; Late Latin shows a general confusion of case endings, and so might late British have done. Further the earliest W poetry we have shows no signs of either endings or their recent demise.

Reconstructed Brittonic o-stem noun, *mapos, ‘son’, after Russell, An introduction to the Celtic Languages, p. 123:

NOM: *mapos                *mapī, from earlier *mapoi
ACC: *mapon                *mapūs
GEN: *mapī *mapon
DAT: *mapū *mapobos/mapobi(s)

There is no reason why a full case-system could not have survived apocope by means of vowel affection and following mutations, which is exactly what happened in Goidelic. We might imagine an inflected MW noun mab as follows, precisely paralleling the OIr system:

  SING.              PLUR.
NOM: **mab +S [in Br] **meib + L
ACC: **mab +N **mab  + S
GEN: **meib + L **mab + N
DAT: **mab + L **mabof + L/S

Thankfully, perhaps, this system did not obtain; a two-case system (with a nominative and an ‘oblique’ case, much like Old French) appears to have held the field for a brief period, but even that was swiftly replaced by the familiar modern pattern: just one form for the singular, and one for the plural.

Koch’s argument in BBCS 30: case inflection can survive big phonological changes (OIr retains cases even after apocope); it’s not necessarily the case that loss of endings leads to loss of cases.

BUT, says Koch, we can look at it the other way round: that cases might have been well on the way out BEFORE apocope (like late Latin). In other words, the declensional system might have been breaking down before the drastic phonological changes of the mid 5th – 6th century. So we can imagine tremendous forces pushing to get rid of forms like **mabof as soon as they appeared.

A trace of case inflection can be seen in the preposition erbyn ‘against’ <British *are pennū ‘opposite the head, head-on’, and in the place-name Caerdydd <Caer+Dyf ‘castle of the River Taf’, where Tyf is the genitive of Taf <British *Tami-, showing vowel affection (OW Cair Teim)

NB: There is no word in W precisely equivalent to English ‘of’. Nouns in a gentival relationship are simply juxtaposed: gwlat Arawn, ‘Arawn’s land’; gwallt y uorwyn ‘the maiden’s hair’.
Notice the idiomatic pattern, common to all the Celtic languages, that you do not need two definite articles in a genitive phrase; ‘the king of the land’ is brenhin y wlat in MW, NOT **y brenhin y wlat. Very occasionally this rule is ignored.


There is no dual number in MW, though it persists in OIr. Vestigial traces of it remain in the prefixing of the numeral dau/dwy to nouns referring to paired parts of the body:

dwylaw [<llaw] ‘two hands’ = ‘hands’
deulin [<glin] ‘two knees’ = ‘knees’
dwyglust [<clust> men, goose --> geese, mouse--> mice, foot--> feet etc. This derives from the effect of the old o-stem nominative plural ending –ī. Obviously only a proportion of Brittonic nouns were o-stems, but in the general confusion following apocope there were many formations by analogy.

There are the following patterns of vowel-affection plurals in MW:

a--> e march, meirch horses
e-->y unben, unbyn chieftains
o-->y                corn, cyrn                horns
w-->y twrch, tyrch boars
ae-->ei maen, mein stones
oe-->wy croen, crwyn skins
a…a-->e…ei/y dauat, deueit sheep
a…ae-->e…ei amaeth, emeith farmers
a…e-->e…y castell, kestyll               fortresses
a…w--> e…y diafwl, diefyl devils

Some plurals have just an ending:

-eu kennad, kennadeu messengers
-(y)on ebol, ebolyon colts
-(y)eit pechadur, pechaduryeit sinners
-i hwylbrenn, hwylbrenni masts
-yd broyd lands
-oed yniueroed hosts
-ed brenhined kings
-et mechet daughters, girls
-ot llewot lions
-awt edystrawt steeds
-awr [early MW] aessawr shields

Some have vowel–change AND an ending:

bwrd --> byrdeu tables
daw(f)-->douyon sons-in-law

With i-affection:

mab-->meibyon sons
caer-->keyryd castles
cawr-->kewri giants
dar-->deri                oaks

Occasionally, the vowel-affection is in the singular and the plural reverses it:

deigr -->dagreu tears [cf. Gk dakru, dakrua]
celein --> calanned corpses, dead bodies

Some are irregular, though historically explicable:

ci--> cwn dogs (an old n-stem: compare OIr nom. cú, gen. con.)

Some nouns have more than one plural: see GMW pp. 31-3 for a summary.

For some nouns, the basic form is the plural and singulars are formed with the ending –en:

ser ‘stars’ -->seren ‘a star’
llygot ‘mice’ -->  llygoden ‘a mouse’ [but llyc, ‘a shrew, vole’]
coed ‘trees, woods’ --> coeden ‘a single tree’
adar ‘birds’ --> ederyn, aderyn ‘a bird’

Also trees:
bedw ‘birches’ --> bedwen ‘a birch tree’
derw ‘oaks’ --> derwen ‘an oak’

NB: When the ‘plurality’ of a noun is shown by a numeral, the noun does not normally have a plural ending: tri dyn ‘three men’, NOT **tri dynion. An exception is the form meib ‘sons, boys’ which is only found after numerals higher than two. So dau uab, but tri meib. Otherwise the plural of mab is meibion.


Some mostly monosyllabic MW adjectives have separate feminine forms, usually resulting from vowel-affection from a lost –ā ending. The masc. forms usually have –y- or –w-, affecting to –e- or –o- in the feminine.

gwynn ‘white, holy’ f. gwenn
gwyrd, ‘green’, f. gwerd [ModW gwyrdd, gwerdd]
trwm, ‘heavy’, f. trom
crwn, ‘round’, f. cron
cryf ‘strong’, f. cref
melyn ‘yellow’, f. melen
byrr ‘short’, f. berr

Many adjectives also have special plurals. These have by and large been levelled out in ModW, but are very common in MW. They are formed with the same patterns as the noun plurals:


bychan --> bychain ‘little’
arall --> eraill ‘other’
ieuanc --> ieuainc ‘young’


gwynn--> gwynnion ‘white, holy’
cryf --> cryfion ‘strong’

Endings + vowel-change:

glas --> gleission ‘blue-gray, green’, or of a person, ‘inexperienced, young’

Some adjectives have more than one plural form:

cadarn --> kedyrn/cadarnyon ‘strong, mighty’

Most adjectives usually follow the noun, with the exceptions of prif ‘first, chief’, and hen ‘old’, which precede a noun they qualify. If an adjective is preposed, say in poetry, it forms a compound, either closely or loosely with the following noun and lenites it.

Note also the following pattern:

adjective + o/a [a preposition meaning ‘from’, leniting] + noun = noun + adjective.

Ys dyhed o beth = ys beth dyhed, ‘it is a strange thing…’
Bychan a dial oed an llosgi ni = dial bychan oed an llosgi ni, ‘our burning would be a small revenge’
Mawr a teith, ‘a big journey’ [unusual non-lenition]
Da a dwy ynys, ‘two good islands’

Comparison of Adjectives

Alongside the familiar positive, comparative and superlative, MW adjectives also have an ‘equative’ form, usually used to mean ‘as X as…’, though it has other functions as well.


There are three ways of forming the equative.

* + (h)et cochet ‘as red’
*prefixing ky(f)- or kym- to a noun kyfliw ‘of the same colour as’
kyfurd ‘of the same rank as’
* mor + adjective (often lenited) mor llawn ‘as full’

‘as X as Y’ is formed by the phrase ky(n) +  EQUATIVE + a(c).

NB Equatives can be used as nouns, often with a kind of ‘startle factor’ in the meaning. There’s a well-known example on the first page of Pwyll: ual y llathrei wynnet y cwn, ‘as gleamed the startling whiteness of the dogs…’

In Branwen uerch Lyr, we find all three ways of forming the equative in a single sentence:


The ending is –ach. ‘Than’ is expressed by no(c).

The ending is –(h)af, pointing to an older –samos (cf. Italian bravisSIMo)
The h- of the equative and superlative endings causes provection of the last consonant of the stem:

caled --> caletet, caletaf, ‘as hard, hardest’.
teg à teccaf, ‘fairest’

NB in ModW provection has also spread to the comparative, but this is ahistorical.


Like other languages, most of the commonest adjectives have irregular patterns of comparison, which simply have to be learnt:

Positive Equative Comparative Superlative

agos nesset nes nessaf ‘near’
bychan bychanet    llei lleiaf ‘little’
kynnar - kynt kyntaf ‘early’
da kystal* gwell goreu ‘good’
drwc drycket gwaeth gwaethaf ‘bad’
hawd hawsset haws hawssaf ‘easy’
hen - hyn hynaf ‘old’
hir kyhyt hwy hwyaf ‘long, tall’
issel isset is issaf ‘low’
mawr kymeint mwy/moe mwyaf ‘big’
uchel uchet uch uchaf ‘high’

*and others. See GMW p.40

NB: nouns can be treated as adjectives for the purposes of comparison; e.g. pennaf ‘head-est’ à ‘the exalted one, the chief’, or amserach ‘more timely’.
Last edited by Megli on 23 Oct 2006, 15:07, edited 1 time in total.

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Post by Art » 23 Oct 2006, 14:07

Very interesting! Thanks for taking the time to post this material for us!


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Post by ~*Blackbird*~ » 25 Oct 2006, 01:15

Wicked stuff :) Please keep it coming!

Diolch Megli!

~*Efo can yn fy ysbryd,a'r heniaeth yn fy ngwaed,rwy'n byw bywyd llawn efo calon Celtaidd*~

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Post by Gwilym Goch » 26 Oct 2006, 18:49

Brilliant. Hadn't looked at this sort of stuff since my degree. Very useful to see it all condenced.

Diolch yn fawr iawn


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Post by Megli » 26 Oct 2006, 18:55

Really can't get the next one to format properly. Kernos, what should I do?
M /|\

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